Ian Lockwood

MUSINGS, TRIP ACCOUNTS AND IMAGES FROM SOUTH ASIA

Knuckles Explorations

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High peaks of the Knuckles and Meemure valley from Corbet’s Gap. (April 2007)

The Knuckles or Dumbara Kanduvetiya mountain range is a vital refuge for Sri Lankan biodiversity. Cloaked in mist, both literally and figuratively, they sit at the center of the island but are one of the least-understood natural landscapes in Sri Lanka. In 2010 UNESCO recognized the Knuckles conservation area as part of the Sri Lankan Central Highlands World Heritage Site  (UNESCO). That helped draw positive attention to the area. Located north-east of Kandy, the range is spread over about 210 square kilometers and includes a collection of rugged peaks just under 2,000 meters. I’ve been interested in the Knuckles for some time, especially since there is a strong ecological and geological affinity with the Southern Western Ghats. Last term’s school break and a family road trip gave me a chance to continue my explorations that first started in 2005.

It is difficult to move through the Knuckles area, a landscape dominated by steep escarpments, craggy peaks and isolated valleys. Dense forest makes movement difficult. I have thus far visited the two different corners on four separate family trips and I feel like we are just starting to scratch the surface of getting to know the area. When we first arrived in Sri Lanka in 2005 our family took two short visits to the Corbet’s Gap side of the Knuckles range. Now, in the last two years, we have been to the Riverston area twice. I was particularly interested to observe and document parallels in the landscape and ecology of the Knuckles with the southernmost Western Ghats. I had heard anecdotal  reports that the Agasthyamalai range, one of the richest biological zones in the Western Ghats, shares affinity with the Knuckles area. Thus, I was interested to see the pantanas and see to what extent they mirrored patterns of mid-elevation grasslands in the southern Western Ghats. These links continue to drive my ongoing interest in the Knuckles.

 

The Knuckles or Dumbara range, as seen from the summit of Sri Pada on a crisp December morning in 2013.

 

On our recent visit we took an afternoon to visit the Pitawala pantana, an area of mid elevation grasslands that is home to several rare species. Most notable is the presence of a population of the rare Kirtisinghe’s rock frog or marbled streamlined frog (Nannophrys marmorata). We found tadpoles on the stream surface but did not actually see an adult. That was disappointing but it gives us a reason to revisit the area in the next year. We were give excellent guidance by Nadeera Weerasinghe the manager of Sir John’s Bungalow, the fine accommodation that we stayed at for two nights. He also helped us identify the large Knuckles Bent Toed Geckos (Crytodactylus soba) that frequented the bungalow at night. The best shot, however was found while walking with the kids on the Riverston road at night

There are several species of reptiles and amphibians that are closely associated with the Knuckles area and are, in fact, endemic to the range. The Leaf Nosed Lizard (Ceratophora tennentii) and Knuckles Pygmy Lizard (Caphotis dumbara) were on my list and with advice from Nadeera we found several individuals on the Riverston pass. In the coming months we plan to return to learn more about this fascinating corner of Sri Lanka.

Cophotis_dumbara_at_Riverston_1a(MR)(10_18)

The endemic and rare Knuckles Pygmy Lizard (Cophotis dumbara) photographed at Riverston. November 2018

Calotes_liocephalus_jv_at_Riverston_3a(MR)(10_18)

Crestless lizard juvenile (Calotes liocephalus) at Riverston.

Riverston_pantana_1a(MR)(10_18)

Shades of the shola/grasslands mosaic? These are mid-elevation pantanas (@700-1200 m) with coarse grasses on the Riverston road.

Riverston_Rd_looking_north_pan_1a(MR)(10_18)

Morning view looking north from the Riverston road. The foreground is dominated by the pantanas- native grasslands at a mid-elevation (@700-1200 m) with coarse grasses.

knuckles range elevation 2019 (mr)

Author’s map of the Knuckles region (updated version)

Knuckles_Range_dawn_pan#1(MR)(10_16)

The broad sweep of the Knuckles range seen from the border of Wasguma National Park looking due south. October 2016.

REFERENCES & PUBLICITY

Bambaradeniya Channa and S P Ekanayake. A Guide to the Biodiversity of the Knuckles Forest Range. Colombo: IUCN. 2003. Print.

De Silva, Anslem. Amphibians of Sri Lanka: A Photographic Guide to Common Frogs, Toad Caecilians. Published by author, 2009. Print.

De Silva, Anslem, Ed.  The Diversity of the Dumbara Mountains. (Lyriocephalus Special Issue). November 2005. Amphibia and Reptile Research Organization of Sri Lanka. Print.

De Silva, Anslem and Kanishka Ukuwela. A Naturalist’s Guide to the Reptiles of Sri Lanka. Colombo: Vijitha Yapa Publishing, 2017. Print.

Ekanayake, Sarath and Channa Bambaradeniya. Trekking in the Knuckles Forest: A Trekking Guide to Alugallena, Dekinda and Nitre Cave Nature Trails. Colombo: IUCN. 2003. Print.

Lakdasun Trips. “Knuckles.” ND. Web.

Lindström, Sara.  Eskil Mattsson and S.P.Nissanka. “Forest cover change in Sri Lanka: The role of small scale farmers.” Applied Geography. May 2012. Web.

Meegaskumbura, Madhava et al.  “Amphibian Research in Sri Lanka.” Froglog. (via ResearchGate). January 2014. Web.

Somaweera, Ruchira and Nilusha Somaweera. Lizards of Sri Lanka. A Colour Guide with Field Keys. Frankfurt: Edition Chimaira, 2009. Print.

Weerawardhena, Senarathge R. and Anthony P. Russell.  “Historical land-use patterns in relation to conservation strategies for the Riverstone area, the Knuckles massif, Sri Lanka: insights gained from the recovery of anuran communities.” Taprobanica. October 2012. Web.

 

Written by ianlockwood

2019-01-12 at 9:14 pm

One Response

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  1. Love these slow and steady pieces from South India and SL, Ian. Have been reading them for quite some time. Thanks for sharing!

    tiwarisac

    2019-01-13 at 9:24 am


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